Thanks to the faculty of intelligence, humans can contemplate the consequences of actions.

Forests used to cover 99% of the entire earth at one point. What happened next is human civilization uprooted this green cover and built vast countries and empires for human dwelling.

In the Bhagavad Gita, Arjuna begins by having doubts about the battle with his kinsmen because of the fear of what may happen next.

āchāryāḥ pitaraḥ putrās tathaiva cha pitāmahāḥ
mātulāḥ śhvaśhurāḥ pautrāḥ śhyālāḥ sambandhinas tathā

etān na hantum ichchhāmi ghnato ’pi madhusūdana
api trailokya-rājyasya hetoḥ kiṁ nu mahī-kṛite

This can be roughly translated to:
Teachers, fathers, sons, grandfathers, maternal uncles, grandsons, fathers-in-law, grand-nephews, brothers-in-law, and other kinsmen are present here, staking their lives and riches. O Madhusudan, I do not wish to slay them, even if they attack me. If we kill the sons of Dhritarashtra, what satisfaction will we derive from the dominion over the three worlds, what to speak of this Earth?
– Bhagavad Gita, 1.34-35
In the case of Arjuna, Krishna informs him in depth why he is heedlessly worrying about this consequence. The law of dharma ensured that the eternal self immanent in each of his kinsmen was taken to it’s next natural stage.


Among the kingdoms of India worthy of study are the Chalukyas.

They are said to have originated from a community of farmers.

Their capital, Badami, today a historical heritage site, was said to be one of the grandest cities of its time.


It is a famous saying that history is written by the victors.

Keeping this in mind, one may begin to unwind the web of narratives that any history consists of.

Going from the most ancient to the most modern, it is interesting to see if the various webs can ever be untangled. Perhaps, by an artificial intelligence?


It is interesting to note how computers have moved from even being conceived of thanks to mathematics.

From this conceptual stage, it moved to vacuum tubes to transistors and semiconductors.

Today, one finds supercomputers, quantum computing and other fascinating developments.


The situation today is one where connectivity and interdependence have become more ubiquitous than ever.

Almost every part of the globe appears to have joined the rest.

Understanding the situation means that one does not forget the level of complexity this brings to the table.

Human social interaction and all the side effects it brings is by itself a very complex and ill understood phenomenon.

It would be interesting to see what kinds of scenarios society faces as this phenomenon expands.


Often, one sees certain points in history where the spirit of one or more individuals makes a crucial difference.

The never-say-die spirit makes a difference especially in battles.

Examples of this can be seen in historical events from Maharana Pratap to Shivaji’s band of 300 soldiers in Simhagad.


The ancient Romans tried to define what makes one civilized using themselves as the role model.

Julius Caesar and other Romans saw those Gauls as civilized who had cut hair, shaved beard and followed Roman mannerism.

However, those tribes such as the Nervii of present day Belgium were seen as untouched by civilization. Interestingly, the Nervii gave an extremely tough fight in the Gallic Wars.


Often, historical incidents are shaped as much by unintended consequences as by intentional actions.

Generally, it is dangerous to form theories about such complex systems as human history.

Perhaps, notice can be taken by people about the unintended consequences before undertaking drastic actions.

The intermingling

Time and space are two of the most fundamental aspects of human existence.

Understanding these at a fundamental level is one of mankind’s eternal quests in the world of physics.

At a much higher macro level, one can study the progress and evolution of certain sets of people over space and time. This is done in the form of geography and history.

It is well known that geography and history intimately influence each other, possibly  analogous to how space and time influence each other on the fundamental level of quantum particles.


In the war of conquest against the Gauls, the Romans under the leadership of Julius Caesar went all out in their efforts.

The origins of this conflict lay around 350 years prior to this final war in the Battle of the Allia, when the Gauls sacked Rome.

During the war with Rome, the Gauls put up incredible resistance until the end. The last stand took place at Alesia.